At present, crawling public data through crawler has become the mainstream way of data acquisition. n the process of actually crawling data, many users often experience problems such as timeouts, inaccessible, 403 error codes, and so on. In general, this situation is likely to occur because the user's IP address has been restricted by the target site server. In order to ensure that the crawler can climb data efficiently and stably, the following will introduce some important methods and techniques.
1. Check the robot exclusion protocol
Before crawling or scraping a website, be sure to check the target website's robot exclusion protocol (robots.txt) file and follow the website rules. The bot exclusion protocol is a file that webmasters use to tell crawlers which pages are accessible and which pages are not. Following these rules avoids unnecessary crawling while respecting the site's privacy and usage policies.
2. Use the proxy IP address
When doing network crawling, exposing the real IP address may cause the server of the target site to recognize and restrict access, or even block the IP address, thus making it impossible for the crawler to obtain data properly. By using proxy IP, crawlers can use a different IP address for each request, effectively hiding their true identity and reducing the risk of being blocked, while increasing the success rate of crawling data.
Choosing the right proxy IP provider is critical. A good proxy provider should have a large pool of crawler proxy IP and provide IP resources in multiple geographic locations. The purpose of this is to ensure that different IP addresses can be constantly rotated during the crawl process, making the target website difficult to track and block. In addition, a large proxy IP pool can also provide more IP choices, reducing the number of IP shared by multiple users resulting in slow access.
3. Rotate IP addresses
Frequent switching of IP addresses can simulate the behavior of different users, making user requests appear to come from different Internet users, thus reducing the likelihood of being blocked by the target site. By frequently switching IP addresses, it simulates different user behaviors, avoids being blocked, improves the crawling success rate, increases anonymity and protects privacy, and thus provides reliable protection for data collection. At the same time, a reasonable choice of proxy pool and IP proxy provider, maintaining a moderate rotation frequency, can ensure the normal operation of the crawler, and provide efficient and reliable support for data collection and analysis.
4. Use real user agents
Most servers that host websites can analyze the headers of HTTP requests made by crawlers, which contain user agent information. The server can determine whether the request is from a real user based on the user agent information. To avoid being identified by websites as crawlers and restricting access, users can choose to use real user agents that mimic the common configuration of HTTP requests submitted by browsers and operating systems. This can increase the camouflage of the crawler and improve the success rate of crawling data.
By following the robot exclusion protocol, using proxy IP, rotating IP addresses, and using real user agents, it is possible to ensure efficient and stable crawler data acquisition. These techniques can not only improve the success rate of crawling, but also protect the crawler from blocking and restrictions, providing a good guarantee for data collection. At the same time, in the collection of crawler data, it is also necessary to pay attention to compliance with relevant laws and regulations and the rules of use of the website to ensure the lawful acquisition and use of data. Only under the premise of following the rules, can the crawler technology be effectively used to obtain the required data and provide strong support for business development and data analysis.